A Review on Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Molecular Etiology and Management ofVarious Forms of Sexual Dysfunction - Special Focus on Erectile Dysfunction and Libido

Sexual dysfunction in both men and women are caused by some common factors such as smoking, alcoholism, psychological stress, unhealthy lifestyle and other medical conditions like diabetes, organ failure etc. Similar to the shared causes for the condition, a subset of molecular pathways and etiology behind the condition are also overlapping between the sexes. Studies have demonstrated that ED is increasingly prevalent with age: approximately 40% of men are affected at age 40 and nearly 70% of men are affected at age 70. Pathways like NO/cGMP signalling, RhoA/ROK mediated calcium sensitizing pathways, testosterone and estrogen mediated gene regulation, neurotransmitter balance etc. have been shown to be the driving forces behind the smooth muscle tone, libido, penile erection and ejaculation.


Srividhya Sundararaman1*, Harish Mohan1, CN Ramchand2

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